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Glossary Terms Beginning I
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- International Air Transport Association: international civil aviation industry
- Input back-off: see Back-off.
- IDR framing
- See Overhead framing.
- Intermediate data rate: refers to INTELSAT's general data services.
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (US).
- IEEE 1394
- See Firewire.
- Intermediate frequency signal, between stages in an uplink or downlink transmission
chain - typically at frequencies of 70 or 140 MHz, or in the L-band (at around
1000 MHz or 1 GHz).
- Interruptible foldback or interruptible feedback: allows a producer, director
etc. to communicate with the reporter during a 'live' remote transmission.
- Intergovernmental organization.
- INMARSAT mobile number.
- International Maritime Organisation: founder of INMARSAT.
- International mobile telecommunications for the second millenium: ITU equivalent
to European UMTS.
- Angle between the orbital plane of a satellite and the equatorial plane of
- Inclined orbit
- Satellite status near the end of its operational life, when North- South station-keeping
manoeuvres are largely abandoned; this type of capacity is often used for SNG.
- Information rate
- Fundamental video data rate.
- International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee.
- Injection orbit
- See Transfer orbit.
- In-line fed prime focus
- Antenna where the feedhorn is directly in front of the vertex of the antenna.
- International Maritime Satellite Organisation: operates a network of satellites
for international transmissions for all types of international mobile services
including maritime, aeronautical and land mobile.
- Input back-off
- IBO: where the input signal to the HPA is reduced so that the TWT is operating
on the linear part of its power transfer curve; expressed in dB.
- International Telecommunications Satellite Organisation.
- Energy which interferes with the reception of desired signals.
- Where consecutive bits are interleaved amongst other bits in the bit-stream
over a certain period of time to improve ruggedness of data.
- Intermodulation products
- IP: spurious signals generated typically in the HPA which cause interference
to other adjacent signals.
- The ability of one manufacturer's equipment (e.g. an MPEG-2 encoder), compliant
to an agreed standard, to operate in harmony with the same type of equipment from
- Interview mode
- Low-latency mode (typically less than 250 ms) on an MPEG-2 encoder.
- Intra-frame coding
- Form of compression of looking for spectral and spatial redundancy inside
each frame without reference to any other frame, and sending such frames in a
- DCT Reverse process to DCT coding.
- Electrical powering device that produces 110/240 V from a 12/24 V source,
e.g. a vehicle battery.
- Ionizing radiation
- Electromagnetic radiation of X-rays, gamma radiation, neutrons and alpha particles,
that can have sufficient energy to permanently alter cell structures.
- Indian Ocean Region: describes coverage area of a satellite.
- Intermodulation product; Internet protocol.
- Incidental power flux density: a measure of the illumination of the satellite
by the uplink.
- Integrated receiver decoder: an integrated MPEG-2 digital receiver which combines
a downconverter, a demodulator and a compression decoder.
- Integrated services digital network: ITU-T term for integrated transmission
of voice, video and data on the digital public telecommunications network.
- International Standards Organization.
- Broadcasting industry lobby group of the WBU, which seeks to influence particularly
in the areas of SNG and contribution circuits.
- Isotropic antenna
- A hypothetical omni-directional point-source antenna that radiates equal electromagnetic
power in all directions - the gain of an isotropic antenna is 0 dBi - that serves
as an engineering reference for the measurement of antenna gain.
- International Telecommunications Union: undertakes global administration of
spectrum. Founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, it changed its
name to the International Telecommunication Union in 1934.
- ITU development sector: provides technical assistance to developing countries.
- ITU telecommunication sector: establishes global agreements on standards for